Module name requirements


Module naming requirements only apply to packages which are uploaded to a fpm registry; by default, no naming rules are enforced for local fpm projects.


TL;DR Always prefix all your module names with a standardized package prefix.

  • A default prefix (package name + double underscore: my_package__*) is always reserved by the registry

  • A custom prefix (no-symbols + single underscore: mypkg_*) can be specified, but it is subject to not being reserved in the registry yet.

  • Set default (module-naming=true) or custom (module-naming="mypfx") prefix in fpm.toml [build].

The Fortran language does not support namespaces. This means that all public names (modules, but also global subroutines and functions) must be unique in the build space. Any build that contains duplicate names will fail because it is impossible to resolve a name to a unique object. For this reason, fpm by default requires all packages to comply with simple naming conventions that apply to both the package name and its modules.

Fortran names: general rules

As of Fortran 2003 onward, valid Fortran names need to comply with the following rules:

  • Up to 63 characters long;

  • Letters are case insensitive;

  • Must begin with a letter;

  • Only alphanumeric characters (letters, numbers) and underscores _ are allowed.

Examples of invalid Fortran names:

  1_package         ! Begins with #
  package$          ! Contains invalid symbol
  _package          ! Does not begin with letter
  my package        ! Contains space

Examples of valid Fortran names:

  my_module         ! Case insensitive: all versions valid,
  My_Module         ! but resolving to the same object
  package_module    ! Underscores allowed

fpm registry names: rules for packages and modules

To reduce the chance of name collisions, any Fortran module name in a package must begin with a unique prefix. Two options are offered.

Default Module names

The default option is always valid for all packages, as it is uniquely bound to the package name. It features a fortrannized package name, followed by a double underscore, with these rules:

  1. Must begin with their package name;

  2. The default separator __ between the package name chunk and what follows must be used;

  3. Neither the module nor the package name shall contain the default separator sequence elsewhere.


The default separator is a double underscore, single underscores are allowed anywhere except at the end of a package name.

Valid enforced module names

When the naming conventions are enforced, these are example modules in a package named my_pkg to illustrate the rules:

   module my_pkg        ! Global API
   module my_pkg__1     ! We can now number them
   module my_pkg__123
   module my_pkg__core
   module my_pkg__utils
   module my_pkg__with_very_long_name

Invalid enforced module names

Considering the same package my_pkg, the following names will be invalid according to the naming rules:

   module my_pkg__      ! Nothing follows the separator
   module my_pkg__1__2  ! Separator must be unique
   module my_pkg__90123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 ! 64 chars: too long
   module my_pkg__util$ ! non-Fortran name

Custom Module names

Optionally, one can specify a custom prefix for the package's modules. The custom prefix must be:

  1. A valid Fortran name;

  2. Alphanumeric only characters (no spaces, symbols, dashes, underscores allowed).

Different from the default option, a custom prefix needs to be validated by the registry, which keeps a list of unique custom prefixes to prevent name collisions.

Module names with the custom prefix are followed by a single underscore _, which makes this option more flexible and backward compatible with existing packages. When a custom module prefix is specified, the default one is still available. Considering for example a package named date-time, with chosen prefix dt, the following are all valid module names:

   module date_time        ! Same as package name
   module dt               ! Same as custom prefix
   module date_time__utils ! use standard naming -> double underscore
   module dt_utils         ! custom prefix -> single underscore
   module dt_123           ! custom prefix
   module dt_1
   module dt__1            ! also valid

Package names

All packages in FPM registries must have unique names, hence they must abide to the following rules

  1. All package names shall be valid Fortran names;

  2. Dash characters (-) are also allowed, and are treated by fpm as underscores;

  3. Package names may contain uppercase and lowercase characters, but their unique identification is made case insensitive;

  4. No duplicate package names are allowed within the same namespace.

Examples of valid package names:

   my_package     ! 1 underscore allowed
   My_Package     ! same as the former
   mypackage123   ! Numbers OK
   my-package     ! Will be read by fpm as "my_package"

Examples of invalid package names:

  my__package       ! Contains package__module separator
  package__         ! Contains separator
  package_          ! Ends with underscore
  my pac$age        ! Spaces and all symbols besides `_` not allowed
  _my_package       ! Does not begin with letter
  123package        ! Does not begin with letter

Manifest Settings


Key facts:

  • FPM does not apply naming requirements by default. If you want them, enable them in fpm.toml

  • FPM registries mandatorily require them. Ensure fpm.toml enables them.

  • Enable standard prefix with module-naming=true, custom prefix with module-naming="prefixname".

Module naming requirements can be enabled in fpm.toml under the build section, using the boolean flag module-naming. By default, module-naming = false, so no registry name enforcing is checked during the build.


auto-executables = true
auto-examples = false
auto-tests = false
module-naming = true          # Use default naming convention
external-modules = "netcdf"
auto-executables = true
auto-examples = false
auto-tests = false
module-naming = "tomlf"       # Use custom prefix, "tomlf"
external-modules = "netcdf"



These are non-mandatory styling suggestions to improve code readability and uniformity.

It's recommended that the public API of each package is contained in a top-level module, whose name is same as the package name. For example, assuming a package DateTime deals with time and date in Fortran, one could have several modules deal with parts of it:

   module datetime__dates ; end module
   module datetime__time  ; end module
   module datetime__julian; end module

and a unique public API that's contained in the top-level module:

   module datetime
      use datetime__dates, only: [...]
      use datetime__time, only: [...]
      use datetime__julian, only: [...]
      implicit none(type,external)

      ! Publish API
      public :: sub_1
      public :: fun_123

   end module datetime


[1] Metcalf, Reid, Cohen, "Modern Fortran Explained", Oxford University Press.

[2] Style Guide for Python Code