Module name requirements
Module name requirements¶
Module naming requirements only apply to packages which are uploaded to a fpm registry; by default, no naming rules are enforced for local fpm projects.
TL;DR Always prefix all your module names with a standardized package prefix.
A default prefix (package name + double underscore:
my_package__*) is always reserved by the registry
A custom prefix (no-symbols + single underscore:
mypkg_*) can be specified, but it is subject to not being reserved in the registry yet.
Set default (
module-naming=true) or custom (
module-naming="mypfx") prefix in
The Fortran language does not support namespaces. This means that all public names (modules, but also global subroutines and functions) must be unique in the build space. Any build that contains duplicate names will fail because it is impossible to resolve a name to a unique object. For this reason, fpm by default requires all packages to comply with simple naming conventions that apply to both the package name and its modules.
Fortran names: general rules¶
As of Fortran 2003 onward, valid Fortran names need to comply with the following rules:
Up to 63 characters long;
Letters are case insensitive;
Must begin with a letter;
Only alphanumeric characters (letters, numbers) and underscores
Examples of invalid Fortran names:
1_package ! Begins with # package$ ! Contains invalid symbol _package ! Does not begin with letter my package ! Contains space
Examples of valid Fortran names:
my_module ! Case insensitive: all versions valid, My_Module ! but resolving to the same object MY_MODULE MyModule mypackage package_module ! Underscores allowed my_package_123
fpm registry names: rules for packages and modules¶
To reduce the chance of name collisions, any Fortran module name in a package must begin with a unique prefix. Two options are offered.
Default Module names¶
The default option is always valid for all packages, as it is uniquely bound to the package name. It features a fortrannized package name, followed by a double underscore, with these rules:
Must begin with their package name;
__between the package name chunk and what follows must be used;
Neither the module nor the package name shall contain the default separator sequence elsewhere.
The default separator is a double underscore, single underscores are allowed anywhere except at the end of a package name.
Valid enforced module names
When the naming conventions are enforced, these are example modules in a package named
my_pkg to illustrate the rules:
module my_pkg ! Global API module my_pkg__1 ! We can now number them module my_pkg__123 module my_pkg__core module my_pkg__utils module my_pkg__with_very_long_name
Invalid enforced module names
Considering the same package
my_pkg, the following names will be invalid according to the naming rules:
module my_pkg__ ! Nothing follows the separator module my_pkg__1__2 ! Separator must be unique module my_pkg__90123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 ! 64 chars: too long module my_pkg__util$ ! non-Fortran name
Custom Module names¶
Optionally, one can specify a custom prefix for the package’s modules. The custom prefix must be:
A valid Fortran name;
Alphanumeric only characters (no spaces, symbols, dashes, underscores allowed).
Different from the default option, a custom prefix needs to be validated by the registry, which keeps a list of unique custom prefixes to prevent name collisions.
Module names with the custom prefix are followed by a
_, which makes this option more flexible and backward compatible with existing packages.
When a custom module prefix is specified, the default one is still available. Considering for example a package named
date-time, with chosen prefix
dt, the following are all valid module names:
module date_time ! Same as package name module dt ! Same as custom prefix module date_time__utils ! use standard naming -> double underscore module dt_utils ! custom prefix -> single underscore module dt_123 ! custom prefix module dt_1 module dt__1 ! also valid
All packages in FPM registries must have unique names, hence they must abide to the following rules
All package names shall be valid Fortran names;
Dash characters (
-) are also allowed, and are treated by fpm as underscores;
Package names may contain uppercase and lowercase characters, but their unique identification is made case insensitive;
No duplicate package names are allowed within the same namespace.
Examples of valid package names:
my_package ! 1 underscore allowed My_Package ! same as the former mypackage123 ! Numbers OK my-package ! Will be read by fpm as "my_package"
Examples of invalid package names:
my__package ! Contains package__module separator package__ ! Contains separator package_ ! Ends with underscore my pac$age ! Spaces and all symbols besides `_` not allowed _my_package ! Does not begin with letter 123package ! Does not begin with letter
FPM does not apply naming requirements by default. If you want them, enable them in
FPM registries mandatorily require them. Ensure
Enable standard prefix with
module-naming=true, custom prefix with
Module naming requirements can be enabled in
fpm.toml under the
build section, using the boolean flag
module-naming = false, so no registry name enforcing is checked during the build.
[build] auto-executables = true auto-examples = false auto-tests = false module-naming = true # Use default naming convention external-modules = "netcdf"
[build] auto-executables = true auto-examples = false auto-tests = false module-naming = "tomlf" # Use custom prefix, "tomlf" external-modules = "netcdf"
These are non-mandatory styling suggestions to improve code readability and uniformity.
It’s recommended that the public API of each package is contained in a top-level module, whose name is same as the package name.
For example, assuming a package
DateTime deals with time and date in Fortran, one could have several modules deal with parts of it:
module datetime__dates ; end module module datetime__time ; end module module datetime__julian; end module
and a unique public API that’s contained in the top-level module:
module datetime use datetime__dates, only: [...] use datetime__time, only: [...] use datetime__julian, only: [...] implicit none(type,external) private ! Publish API public :: sub_1 public :: fun_123 end module datetime
 Metcalf, Reid, Cohen, « Modern Fortran Explained », Oxford University Press.